CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 10 Training in Sports Important Question Answer
Q1. Define Strength and explain any two methods to develop it.
Ans – Strength is the ability to overcome resistance or to act against resistance. or Strength is the capacity of whole body or any of its part to exert force.
Methods to develop Strength :-
- Isometric Exercise
- Isotonic Exercise
- Isokinetic Exercises
Q2. Write a short note on the different types of Strength.
Ans – There are the following types of strength.
1. Maximum Strength: It is the ability of a muscle to overcome maximum resistance in a single repetition or single maximal voluntary contraction. Maximum strength means to exert force against resistance in maximal effort. This type of strength is mainly used in long jump, shot put, javelin throw, weightlifting, discuss throw, etc
2. Explosive Strength: It is the ability of the muscles to overcome resistance as fast as possible. In other words, it can be said that it is a combination of strength and speed. This type of strength is mainly used in spiking of volleyball, jumps in basketball, sprint events, etc.
3. Strength Endurance: It is the ability of a muscle to overcome resistance under the condition of fatigue or as long time as possible. Strength Endurance is the ability of a muscle to perform repeated contractions and withstand fatigue. This type of strength is mainly used in long distance races, swimming, distance cycling, Tug of War (static) etc.
Q3. What are the factors that determine Strength?
Ans – There are following factors that determine strength.
- Muscle composition
- Size of the muscle
- Number of muscle fibres.
- Body weight
- Muscular coordination
Q4. Differentiate between Isometric and Isotonic exercise with suitable example.
Isometric exercise : In Isometric exercises, the length of the muscle and the angle of the joint do not change, though contraction strength may be varied. In isometric exercises muscle and joint movement is not visible as there is no direct movement and the work performed cannot be seen directly eg., pushing a wall.
Isotonic exercise : Isotonic exercise are those exercises in which movements can be seen directly. Isotonic exercises result in toned muscles and increased muscle length. These exercises have great importance in sports. Running and jumping on the spot, weight training exercises, calisthenics exercises are some of the examples of isotonic exercises.
Q5. Explain Isokinetic exercise with suitable examples.
Ans – In isokinetic contraction, the muscles apply maximal force throughout the range of motion around the joint. This method of exercise was introduced by J.J. Perrine in 1968 and involves special type of muscle contraction called isokinetic contraction generally used in sporting events like rowing and swimming. These exercises are performed on specially designed instruments.
Q6. Write about the different types of Endurance based on duration of activity.
Ans – There are following four type of endurance based on duration of activity.
- Speed Endurance: Speed Endurance is the ability to resist fatigue in cyclic activities that last up to 45 seconds. Eg. 400m Sprint
- Short Term Endurance: Short Term Endurance is needed for the activities that last from 45 seconds to about 2 minutes. Eg. 800m run.
- Medium Time Endurance: To resist fatigue in activities that lasting from 2 minutes to about 11 minutes medium time endurance is used. Eg. 1500m, 3000m, etc.
- Long Time Endurance: Long Time Endurance is needed for the activities that last for more than 11 minutes. Eg. Marathons, cross country races etc.
Q7. What do you mean by endurance? Explain methods to develop endurance in detail. Most Important
Define Endurance and discuss the methods of endurance development.
Ans – Endurance is, thus, the ability of an individual to sustain an activity for a long period without undue fatigue. Like strength, endurance is also a conditional ability. Endurance has been studied thoroughly and deeply because it holds great importance in health, training and competition.
There are following three type of training method which develop endurance.
- Continuous Method : this method is about continuity. In this method, an exercise is done for a long duration of time without any rest. Because the duration of the activity is long and continuous in nature, the intensity of the activity is set to be low.
- Interval Method : This is the most versatile method used for improving endurance. In this method, the activity is done at a comparatively high intensity with intervals or breaks of incomplete recovery.
- Fartlek Method : Fartlek is a Swedish word which means ‘speed play’. in the Fartlek method the speed variation is not planned. The athlete changes the speed with his own accord during the activity due to the changes in terrain, surroundings and his feelings.
Q8. List down some advantages of fartlek training method.
- Promotes weight loss
- It’s an excellent test for strength and endurance
- It improves speed and race tactics
- It improves the mind over matter game.
- Increases physical and mental energy
- Improves Fast and Slow Twitch Muscle Response
Q9. Write various methods to develop speed. Most Important
- Acceleration Runs: This method is generally used to develop speed while attaining maximum speed from a static position. In acceleration run, a sportsperson is required to run a specific distance. After the start, the athlete tries to gain maximum speed at the earliest and finishes the specified distance at that speed. These runs are repeated with sufficient rest between the runs. It usually takes 50-60 meters for a sprinter to attain maximum speed after the start.
- Pace Runs: Unlike acceleration runs, pace runs incorporate the method of running the set distance at a uniform speed. It usually includes races of 800 meters and above.
Q10. Define flexibility. What is active and passive flexibility? Explain any two methods used to develop flexibility.
Define Flexibility and list down its types.
Ans – Flexibility is also known as range of motion around a joint. It is the ability to execute a movement with greater amplitude or range. Flexibility is about 2 types which are following :
Type of Flexibility :
1. Active Flexibility :The ability to perform a movement with greater amplitude without an external help is called active flexibility. It is the range of motion that you can achieve by using your muscles to put your joint there, eg., using your shoulder muscles to pull your arm back behind your ear as far as you can.
2. Passive Flexibility : The ability to do movements with greater amplitude with external help is known as passive flexibility eg., stretching with the help of a partner, an accessory, or a prop.
Methods used to develop flexibility :
1. Slow Stretching: The first and the foremost way to improve flexibility is stretching the muscles around the joint slowly. The key point to note here is the stretching should be slow and without any jerky movements.
2. Ballistic Method: This form of stretching uses body’s momentum in an effort to extend range of motion. In this method, the movement is performed with a swing and in a rhythmic way. As the stretching is done in a rhythmic manner, it is called Ballistic Method.
Q11. What is Coupling Ability?
Ans – Coupling ability is the ability to coordinate body part movements with one another and in relation to a definite goal-oriented body movement. Coupling ability is important in sports in which movements with a high degree of difficulty have to be performed with a great deal of accuracy and precision such as gymnastics and team games.
Q12. Write characteristic of circuit training.
Ans – There are the following characterstics of circuit training.
- Exercises in a circuit are simple to learn and execute.
- Exercises are usually performed with medium resistance or medium weight.
- Frequency or number of repetitions vary as per the need of the programme.
- Aim of circuit training is to develop endurance and strength.
- It takes into account exercises of the whole body.
- It is generally given in the preparatory phase of developing basic endurance and strength.
- The load must be gradually increased
Q13. What is coordinative abilities and explain different types of coordinative ability?
Elucidate any 2 types of coordinative ability with suitable example.
Ans – Coordinative abilities are understood as relatively stabilised and generalised patterns of motor control and regulation processes. These enable the sportsman to do a group of movements with better quality and effect.
Types of coordinative ability –
1. Orientation Ability: Orientation ability is the ability to determine and change the position and movements of the body in required time and available space in relation to a definite field of action (such as a volleyball court, skating rink, or football ground) and/or a moving object (like a ball, opponent, or partner).
2. Coupling Ability: Coupling ability is the ability to coordinate body part movements with one another and in relation to a definite goal-oriented body movement. Coupling ability is important in sports like gymnastics and team games like football, basketball etc.
3. Rhythm Ability: Rhythm ability is the ability to perceive the rhythm of a movement and to perform the movement with the required rhythm. In some sports like gymnastics and figure skating the sportsperson has to perceive an external rhythm, music, and to express it in his movements.
4. Reaction Ability: This is the ability to react quickly and effectively to a stimulus. Different games and sports have different types of signals like visual, auditory and tactile to name a few. And to respond to such signals accurately and as quickly as possible is known as reaction ability.
5. Adaptation Ability: Adaptation ability is the ability to adjust or completely change the movement programme on the basis of changes and anticipated changes in the situation. These situational changes may be expected ones or may take place suddenly. It depends considerably on the speed and accuracy of perception of changes in the situation.
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