CBSE Class 12 Physical Education Chapter 9 Psychology & Sports Important Question Answer
Q1. Define Personality?
Ans – Personality is a body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual which are organized externally into roles and statuses. They relate internally to motivation, goals and various aspects of selfhood.
Q2. Personality is an ‘individual’s unique pattern of traits’. whose statement is this?
Ans – Guildford
Q3. Comment upon Allport’s Theory of Personality.
Ans – According to Allport theory, Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustment to his environment.
Q4. Define Sheldon Personality type.
Ans – Sheldon split up these body/personality types into three categories called somatotypes.
(a) Endomorph who are rounded and soft, were said to have tendency towards a ‘viscerotonic’ personality, (ie., Relaxed, comfortable, Social, peaceful, loving);
(b) Mesomorph who are square and muscular, were said to have a tendency towards a ‘somatotonic’ personality (ie., Active, dynamic, assertive); and
(c) Ectomorph who are thin and fine-boned, were said to have a tendency towards a ‘cerebrotonic’ personality (ie., Introvert, thoughtful, sensitive, inhibited).
Q5. Differentiate between Introvert and Extrovert personality?
Q6. Differentiate between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation.
Q7. Write a short note on any two techniques of motivation.
Ans – Cognitive Approach: It is based on the notion that desired motivation can be achieved by an individual through active processing and interpretation of information
Social Support Strategy: Participation in sports and taking up exercise is greatly influenced by an understanding of the social networking and perception of people around them. Positive social support from peer group, family members, and friends helps in developing healthy habits and enough drive to maintain the act of exercising.
Q8. Briefly list the benefits of exercise.
Ans – There are the following benefits of exercise.
- Improve Health condition like reduce risk of cardiovascular disease, weight management, Strengthen bones and muscles, reduce risk to chronic diseases and improve stability of body.
- Provide Stress relief from a pressure lifestyle
- Increase happiness
- Improve concentration power to focus on goals
- Improve emotions control
- Improve brain thinking power and increase memory power
Q9. Define aggression. Discuss any 2 types of aggression.
Ans – Aggression is behaviour that is hostile and violates other people’s rights.
1. Hostile aggression or reactive aggression – Hostile aggression is a type of aggression that is committed in response to a perceived threat or insult. It is unplanned, reactionary, impulsive, and fuelled by intense emotion as opposed to desire to achieve a goal. Aggressors typically have a sense of a loss of control during outbursts, and characteristically experience physiological hyperarousal. Thus, it is also sometimes known as reactive aggression.
2. Instrumental aggression – instrumental aggression refers to aggressive behaviour meant or used to attain some non-aggressive goals like winning, getting money, prestige or gaining any other advantage. Instrumental aggression is harmful behaviour engaged in without provocation to obtain an outcome or coerce others.
Q10. What is the full form of SMART?
Ans – SMART – Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Time based
Q11. Write short note on Goal setting.
What do you understand by “Goal Setting”?
Ans – Goal setting is a mental training technique that can be used to increase an individual’s commitment towards achieving a specific standard of proficiency on a task within a specified time. It is a process of establishing a level of performance proficiency which should be reached within a prescribed time period is known as goal setting.
Q12. What are the personality traits according to the Big Five theory?
Ans – There are five traits of personality according to Big Five theory. These are following –
- Openness to Experience (Imaginative vs Narrow Interest) : Openness refers to dimension of personality which ranges from being imaginative, humorous, intellectual, creative, curious, having broad interests, open to ideas at one end to being closed to experience, suspicious and rigid at the other.
- EXTRAVERSION (Enthusiastic vs Reserved) : Extraversion refers to dimension of personality which ranges from having enthusiasm, energy, positive emotions, talkativeness, assertiveness at one end to being reserved, sober and cautious at the other
- CONSCIENTIOUSNESS (Organized vs Easy-going) : Conscientiousness refers to well-organised, careful, responsible, hardworking and dependable individuals at one end to being relaxed and easy going, spontaneous, disorganized and careless.
- AGREABLENESS (Friendly vs Un-Cooperative) : Dimensions of agreeableness range from being good-natured, cooperative, trusting at one end to being suspicious, irritable and uncooperative at the other. It is also a measure of a person’s helpful and friendly behaviour nature and reflects whether that person is generally friendly and nurturing or not.
- NEUROTICISM (Composed vs Nervous) : This trait refers to dimensions of personality which range from being poised, calm and composed at one end to nervous, anxious and excitable at the other.
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