The Age of Ramayan and Mahabharat Class 6 History Chapter 3 Notes – Our Bharat I HBSE Solution

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HBSE Class 6 History The Age of Ramayan and Mahabharat notes for Haryana Board of chapter 3 in Our Bharat 1 Solution.

The Age of Ramayan and Mahabharat Class 6 History Chapter 3 Notes

Ramayan and Mahabharat are two texts for which a feeling of great reverence is found among the Indians. Both these texts are included in the world’s highest quality works. Both these texts are called epics. Although many western and Indian scholars call them fantasy, at present their history has been proved by much archaeological and other scientific research.

Story of the Ramayan in brief

Ramayan was composed by Maharishi Valmiki and for this reason he is considered as the first poet of the world. The Suryavanshi king Dashrath ruled the kingdom of Kaushala. His capital was Ayodhya. He had three queens. Kaushalya whose son was Shri Ram. The second was Sumitra, whose sons were Lakshman and Shatrughn. The youngest was Kaikayi whose son’s name was Bharat. Shri Ram was popular because of being the eldest and embodiment of all virtues. During that time, the demons used to harass the sages and saints living in the forest and obstruct their yogya and havans. Sage Vishwamitra took Sri Ram and Lakshman with him for his protection. They received education under his supervision and provided protection to the sages. Shri Ram was married to Sita, the daughter of king Janak. King Dashrath wanted to make Shri Ram his successor, but Kaikayi the mother of prince Bharat, asked the king Dashrath for two promises – Bharat should be given the throne and Shri Ram should be sent to exile for 14 years. It was difficult for king Dashrath to accept it, but Shri Ram gladly accepted it and his pious wife Sita and brother Lakshman also went with him. King Dashrath could not bear the separation of his eldest son Shri Ram and in this grief he departed to heaven.

Kaikayi’s son Bharat had gone to his maternal grandfather’s house in those days. The messengers who called him passed through Kurukshetra in Haryana. When he came to know about the whole incident on his return to Ayodhya, he criticised his mother a lot and refused to become the king. He went to meet Shri Ram along with his ministers and prayed to him to take over the kingdom. But Shri Ram refused, and Bharat also refused to take the throne. While going back, Shri Ram gave his padukas to Bharat, and Bharat kept those padukas and started ruling in the name of Shri Ram. During the exile, the king of Lanka, Ravan, took Sita away by deceit. Shri Ram started searching for Sita. During this time, Shri Ram met Hanuman and Sugriva. Hanuman found Sita in the Ashok Vatika. When all the efforts for a peaceful solution failed, Shri Ram, with the help of king Sugriva of Kishkindha and his army, constructed a bridge to go to Lanka, killed Ravan, and declared Vibhishan the king of Lanka. Then he returned to Ayodhya along with Sita and Lakshman in Ravan’s ‘Pushpak Vimaan’ and was welcomed with great fanfare by the people of Ayodhya. The rules followed by Maryada Purushottam Shri Ram are still considered ideals. He defeated Bali and handed over the kingdom to his brother Sugriva and handed over the rule of Lanka to Vibhishan after killing his brother Ravan, and did not annex any kingdom himself.

Excerpts from Valmiki Ramayan — In the original text of Valmiki Ramayan, therea were twenty-four thousand verses, which were written in 500 cantos and 6 scenes, whereas now it has twenty-five thousand verses, 658 cantos and 7 scenes. Ramayan was written till Ravan’s killing and there is no mention of Uttar Kand in it.

Literary evidence of the history of the Ramayan

  • Many incidents mentioned in the Ramayan are mentioned in Mahabharat, Purans, Raghuvansh etc. The Ikshvaku dynasty is mentioned in the Rigved.
  • In the Buddhist tradition, there are stories of Dashrath Jatak, Anamak Jatak, which are related to Maryada Purushottam Shri Ram.

Jain religious literature:

  • Padm Charitra (Prakrit) by Vimal Suri
  • Padm Puran (Sanskrit) by Ravishen Acharya
  • Padm Charitra (Apabhransha language) by Swayambhu
  • Shriram Charitra Praman

In Jain tradition, the original name of Shri Ram is considered to be Padm

Ram Katha is also found in other languages of India.

  • 11 in Hindi
  • 12 in Tamil
  • 8 in Marathi
  • 5 in Telugu
  • 25 in Bangla
  • 6 in Oriya

Apart from these, many scholars and saints have written their own books and interpretations.

Various forms of Ramayan in other countries

  • Kakbin Ramayan of Indonesia
  • Khotani Ramayan
  • Tibetan Ramayan
  • Seratram in Java
  • Ramakerti in Indochina

Ramayan is also found in different forms in Burma and Thailand.

The most important evidence is believed to be in Indonesia. When the Dutch government freed Indonesia in 1949 AD, it did not free the island of New Guinea; then the people of Indonesia organised movements for New Guinea and presented Kishkindha Kand 40.30/31 of Valmiki Ramayan as proof, according to which Sugriva was in search of Sita. Addressing the group of monkeys that went in the east direction, he said, “You should try to find the golden island (Java) adorned with seven states, and even in Rupydeep. On crossing Yavadweep, one finds a mountain named Shishir on which the gods and demons reside. That mountain touches the heavenly world from its high peak and this Shishir mountain is in New Guinea”. Recognizing this evidence as true, the Dutch also gave New Guinea to Indonesia.

Vibhishan’s coronation is shown in the Parliament of Sri Lanka. Ashok Vatika has been made into a tourist spot. The Sri Lankan government has already found places related to Ravan. In Thailand, the king is still called Ram even though he is a follower of Buddhism.

Archaeological evidence of histrocity of Ramayan

In India too, all the places mentioned in Ramayan have been identified.

Innumerable terracotta idols related to Ramayan are found in places like Uttar Pradesh, Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Rajasthan etc. In Haryana also, many sculptures have been found from places like Jind, Sirsa, Hisar, Haat, Sudh, Yamunanagar etc., in which the stories of Ramayan are depicted.

Many festivals related to Shri Ram like Ramanavami and Vijayadashami, symbolising victory over Ravan, are celebrated with great gaiety. People have been performing Ramalila in every state of India for centuries.

US agency NASA has proved that the bridge connecting India and Lanka is man-made, which is believed to have been built by Sri Ram and its time is around 7 thousand BC.

The Mahabharat

The author of Mahabharat is Ved Vyas. We also find other forms of this epic before the modern Mahabharat The ‘Jai Grantha’ contains the basic story of the battle between the Kauravas and the Pandavas. It had only eight thousand eight hundred verses originally. By adding a part of the history of the Bharat dynasty to the Jai Grantha, it became ‘Bharat Grantha’, due to which the number of verses in it became twenty- four thousand. After adding many ethical parts and narratives to Bharat Grantha, it became ‘Mahabharat’. It has about one lakh verses. In this way, the present form of Mahabharat has preserved the development of many centuries within itself.

The version of Mahabharat kept at the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute (BORI) in Pune is considered to be the most authentic.

It is said about the Mahabharat that whatever is in this book is everywhere, but what is not in it is nowhere. It is also considered as the encyclopaedia of Hinduism. It is also called the fifth Ved.

It is also considered as Dharmashastra, Arthashastra, Kama Shastra, Niti Shastra and Moksh Shastra.

This is a unique book from the point of view of study. Shrimad Bhagavad Gita, Anu Gita, Parashar Gita, Moksh Dharm etc. are the parts of Mahabharat direc- tions preaching and public education related to Sanjayniti, Vidurneeti, Bhishmniti etc. are included here.

In Shanti Parv, there is description of Rajdharma, Apaddharm and Moksh Dharm.

The original story revolves around the war between Kauravas and Pandavas, but apart from this, many historical stories are also mentioned.

The Age of Mahabharat

Western historians place its events in 900 BC to 1500 BC, but Indian historians have proved it to be quite ancient by their calculations. By his calculations, the Gupt period mathematician Varahmihir has considered its time to be 2449 BC.

The Gupt period mathematician Aryabhata has considered its date as February 18, 3102 BC The Mahabharat dates back to 3100 BC from the Ahol inscription of the Chalukya king Pulakesian II.

According to the calculation of planetary constellations, PV. Hole has considered the date of Mahabharat to be 13.11.3143 BC. Historians like N.N. Rajaram, K. Sadanand, Subhash Kak etc. have considered its time as 3067 BC.

According to the above description and the Kali Samvat written in the modern almanacs, the date of Mahabharat is also estimated around 3100 BC.

Historical evidence of Mahabharat

The places mentioned in the Mahabharat have almost been identified.

This battle was fought at Kurukshetra, which is modern Kurukshetra, because it is mentioned it lies between the Sutlej and the Yamuna rivers. Relics related to Mahabharat have also been found in the Old Fort of Delhi.

Lord Krishn’s Dwarka city has also been discovered in the Arabian Sea in Gujarat.

The remains of Lakshagriha have been found in Barnawa.

The excavation at Sanoli also helps in confirming the Mahabharat. The heroes of Mahabharat and other places are also identified from mythological and other literature. Thus, there is no doubt about the historicity of Mahabharat.

Civilization and culture mentioned in the epics

The civilization described in the epics cannot be tied to any particular period because its present form has been changed many times. Still, we can estimate the time of the occurrence of these events, which are as follows:

Expansion of Aryans In the Ramayan, the Aryans crossed the Vindhyachal mountain range and in the Mahabharat, the kings of the south participated in the war. In the Mahabharat, the description of the world and the geography of India is found in the Bhism Parv.

Origin of the king: It is written in the Shanti Parv of Mahabharat that in the beginning, there was neither a kingdom nor a king; there was neither punishment nor punisher. People were protected from one another by Dharm itself. But after the moral decline, a situation of anarchy arose in society, and there was a need for a king. An agreement was reached in which the subjects agreed to pay taxes to the king and the king promised to protect the subjects, and thus a powerful kingdom was envisioned.

Political thought: In Ramayan, there is an attempt to establish idealism and high moral standards, whereas in Mahabharat, there is more emphasis on reality and the practicality of life. In the Mahabharat, Bhishm emphasized the role of Rajdharma (duty to the state) for the maintenance of social life. According to him, the supreme essence of all the worlds (Loks) is Rajdharma. Rajdharma is superior to all religions, if it disappears then the religions of all the Varnas and Ashrams will end.

Seven parts of the state: Seven organs of the state were considered to be essential. King. Amatya (minister), Janpad, Durg, Kosh, Dand (army) and Mitra. The states were dependent on the army. Without them the state was considered anarchic. Therefore, it was considered very important for a nation to be powerful because without it, life, property, family and religion cannot be protected.

Main Duties of a King

Despite being autocratic, the main duty of the king was to maintain and protect the subjects. The king was expected to treat his sub- jects as a father treats his sons at home. It is written in Shanti Parv that the king should not oppress the weak because the woe of the weak destroys the king. The king who violates Dharm has been condemned in harsh words. Bhishm also allowed an active rebellion against the tyrannical king who did not protect.

Power of public opinion: Kingship was hereditary. But in the matter of succession many times the power of public opinion is also mentioned. When King Prateek wanted to make his son Devapi the king, the people protested and stopped him. The Ramayan and the Mahabharat show that all sections of society were invited at the time of the coronation.

Status of women: There was some decline in the respect of women during the epic period, but they were still respected in society. In the Adi Parva of the Mahabharat, the wife is considered to be half of the man. She is a friend; she is the root of Dharm-Artho- Kama. The speech of many female characters in Mahabharat gives a sense of the wisdom and brilliance of the women of that era. Marriage was also considered a sacred bond. Generally, there was a rule of only one husband for a woman. The virtuous women have been highly praised.

Social life:

Like in the Ramayan, in the Mahabharat also, the origin of the four classes is believed to have originated from different parts of Brahma. There are many proofs of the superiority of Brahmins, but now Kshatriyas have become dominant. In the Mahabharat, a brahmin devoid of self-study, penance, and working against the vama is considered more condemnable than a Shudra. The basis of the vara system is said to be karma instead of birth. In response to the question of the Sarpraj, Yudhishthir says: “If the qualities of a Shudra are in Brahmins, then I will call him a Shudra, and if the qualities of a Brahmin are in a Shudra, then I will call that Shudra a Brahmin”.

In Anushasan Parv 143/46, 47, it is said in the Uma-Maheshwar dialogue that one who is virtuous, kind, respects guests and is a selfless householder, he will get the benefits of higher varna even after being born in a low caste and one who is a brahmin, and is characterless, omnivorous and blasphemous, will attain Shudratva. These views reveal the humane and liberal attitude towards the Shudras. Shudras by birth like Vidura, Kavya and Matang were given respectable positions because of their good conduct. The foreign castes of that period, the Yavan, Kirat, Gandhara, Shabar, Shak, Tushar, Palhav, Pulind, Kamboj and other castes were included in the varna system.

Economic life:

Apart from agriculture, crafts and commerce, there is no other better means of earning money. According to the Sabha Parv of Mahabharat, keeping the farmers satisfied, digging reservoirs for agriculture, donating seeds to poor farmers, and giving favour to the farmers from the treasury were the main duties of the king.

Animal husbandry was the main occupation and the Mahabharat mentions veterinary science also.

In that period, the craft was also progressing more and more. The craftsmen were organised into different guilds and had their own predominance, like silver, gold, iron, ivory, gem mukta, architecture, etc. Taxes were levied by the state, keeping in mind the income expenditure of foreign traders. Trade was carried out by both water and land routes and merchants eamed more profit.

During this period, due to the increase in trade, many new cities were established like Hastinapur, Mathura, Indraprasth, etc. All these cities were connected by roads and canals and were becoming commercial centres.

Religious Life:

The purpose of the epics is to establish the victory of Dharm over Adharm. Where there is Dharm, there is victory. The victory of Shri Ram over Ravan attests to this statement. In Mahabharat also, the Kaurava dynasty was destroyed due to unrighteousness. Therefore, the establishment of Dharm can be said to be a basic statement of the epics.

There are many sects mentioned in the Mahabharat. In this period, Bhagvata was an important sect in which Lord Krishn was considered to be an incarnation of Lord Vishnu and Narayan. The second sect was the Pashupat that considered Shiva as the supreme deity. The mention of devotion to the Sun god is found in the worshippers of the Sun. According to the Shakta sect, the goddess was worshipped. The development of the concept of Brahma, Vishnu, Mahesh (Trinity) is also found. Many such deities are mentioned in Mahabharat. The importance of yagya was increasing during this period, but instead of animal slaughter, emphasis was given on sesame, barley etc. In many places, non-violence has been described as the ultimate Dharma.

During this period, superstitions also increased greatly and people started taking the help of witchcraft to destroy enemies and cure diseases. Snake worship also came into vogue during this period.


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