Class 6 History NCERT Solution for chapter 1 The Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization notes for Haryana board. CCL Chapter Provide Class 1th to 12th all Subjects Solution With Notes, Question Answer, Summary and Important Questions. Class 6 History mcq, summary, Important Question Answer, Textual Question Answer in hindi are available of Our Bharat I Book for HBSE.
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HBSE Class 6 History The Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization notes for Haryana Board of chapter 1 in Our Bharat 1 Solution.
The Sarasvati Sindhu Civilization Class 6 History Chapter 1 Notes
The rivers supplied water to man. Water was readily available for agriculture and cattle throughout the year. All the civilizations of the world have flourished on the banks of water sources, especially rivers.
The Sarasvati river was one of the oldest rivers of India which has become extinct today. This river also had many branches. Various evidences indicate that the river Sarasvati existed 5000 years ago. The flow of the Sarasvati river through the paleochannel is determined by geomorphic remains and satellite images. In the excavation, about 1500 archaeological sites have been found on the banks of this river. The Sarasvati river, which originated from Adibadri, flowed through Yamunanagar, Ambala, Karukshetra, Kaithal, Jind, Hisar, Fatehabad, Sirsa in Haryana and merged into the Arabian Sea through Rajasthan and Gujarat. The second river is the Sindhu river, which flows even today. Most of its flow is eastward into present-day Pakistan. Major places like Mohenjodaro, Chanhudaro and Balakot are situated on the banks of this river.
This civilization is called ‘Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization’ on the basis of the many remains of the towns (archaeological sites) found on the banks of Sarasvati-Sindhu and their tributaries.
Do you know? Ancient physical remains tell their own story. For the first time, these remains were seen in Harappa when the stone pieces were needed to lay railway lines there. For the first time, this place attracted British officials when the workers brought brick pieces from a nearby mound. In 1921 AD, under the leadership of Dayaram Sahni, Ha. appa was excavated on the banks of the Ravi river and the remains of a huge town observed. Similar remains were found in 1922 AD at Mohenjodaro on the banks of the river Sindhu under the leadership of Rakhaldas Banerjee.
Town Planning: We have the remains of the towns of the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization in two parts. The western part was small but built to a height. It has been called Durg Kshetra (Nagardurg). The eastern part was larger, which was called the lower town. Most of the sites were surrounded by boundary walls, which were made of solid bricks. These walls were so strong that they are still intact. Some public work has also been found. A huge bath (pond) has been found in Mohenjodaro. In this, a layer of charcoal was applied over the plaster to stop the leakage of water. Stairs have been made to descend from two sides of this pond; rooms were constructed around the pond. The pond was filled with the water from the well. There was a drain to empty it. It seems that people used to take baths at religious festivals.
Roads and drains
The roads used to be 13 feet to 33 feet wide, and the width of the streets was 9 to 12 feet. The roads crossed each other at right angles.
There were drains on both sides of the road. The water used in the houses was drained through them. These drains were covered with bricks which could be removed and cleaned easily. These drains used to fall into the main drain which carried water out of the town. It is the only civilization in the world where the drains of the house are arranged in such a way.
Houses were built according to a certain plan. Usually the houses had two-storeys. Rooms were built around the courtyard of the house. Kitchen, bathroom and toilet facilities were available. The doors did not open towards the main road and opened into the street. Wells have also been found in many houses.
How old is the Sarasvati-Sindhu civilization? According to Gardon Childe, this civilization is believed to be 4000 years old. While Martimer Wheeler estimated it at 2000 BC to 1500 BC. But according to new discoveries, this civilization is 8000 years old.
Looking at the towns, it seems that these people were prosperous and happy, Apart from towns, people also live in villages. The people living in the village were engaged in agriculture. The excavated remains show that these people grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, paddy, sesame, and mustard. Ploughs, oxen, and camels were used in agriculture. They used to irrigate land from rivers and ponds.
Animals such as camels, bulls, cows, buffaloes, sheep, goats and elephants were reared. Birds such as ducks, rabbits, deer, roosters, parrots, etc. were also reared. All these animals were helpful in their agricultural work. ransportation and food. They used to take the animals far and wide for grazing in herds.
Beautifully shaped weights made of chert stone of the same size have been found at many sites They may have been made for weighing precious stones and metals Weights have also been found for weighing large and heavy objects.
Many things made of stone, conch, copper, bronze, gold and silver have been found. They were skilled at smelting, molding and mixing metals. Tools, weapons, ornaments and utensils were made from copper and bronze. Jewellery and utensils were also made from gold and silver. These people were proficient at making very beautiful clay pots. Apart from ornaments of beautiful beads, many weights and panels have also been found here.
Jewellery and make up
Very beautifully shaped gold, silver and stone ornaments have been found. See how beautifully the beads have been carved into the figure. Many of the beads are made from carnelian stones in which holes were made to make garlands.
Some remnants of pieces of cloth attached to the lid of a silver vase and some other copper objects have been found at Mohenjodaro.. Spindles made of clay and faience indicate the spinning of yarn. Probably 7000 years ago cotton was cultivated in Mehargarh.
Import-export and availability of raw materials
Raw materials are those substances which are either found naturally or produced by farmers or livestock farmers. Metals are found naturally, whereas cotton is pro- duced by farmers for making cloth. They used to get copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones from far and wide. Copper was imported from Rajasthan and the western country of Oman. Tin, a metal mixed with copper to make bronze, was imported from modern-day Iran and Afghanistan. Gold was imported from modern Karnataka and precious stones were imported from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.
Faience: Beads, bangles, earrings and small utensils made of faience have been found in the excavation. Faience is produced synthetically. The powders of sand or crystal stones mixed with gum were used to make objects from them. After that, a smooth coating was applied to these objects. The colour of this smooth layer was usually blue or light green.
Large storehouses have been found in some towns like Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal. Remains of port at Lothal and Dholavira have been found which prove that there was trade with foreign countries also.
Seals: The Harappans used to make seals from the steatite. Most of the seals are rectangular, usually depicting animals. Seals may have been used to mark boxes or bags carrying goods from one place to another. For sealing the bags material like lac, etc. would be used so that if someone tampered with the goods, the impression was broken and the tampering with the goods would be known.
Means of recreation: In the excavation, terracotta toys of children and chess and dice played by the elderly have been found. Remains of other means of recreation have also been found.
How to Read Dates in History
BC means ‘Before Christ’. Sometimes we write AD, which means ‘Anno Domini”, which is derived from Latin words meaning the year of Christians, i.e., Christ. It is used to denote the period after Christ.
Sometimes, CE is used in place of AD and BCE in place of BC CE is used for Common Era and BCE is used for Before Christ Era’.
We use these words because the use of ‘Christian Era’ has become common in most of the countries of the world. This form of date was used in India about two hundred years ago. Sometimes English letters BP are also used, which mean ‘Before Present’.
Micro examination of Chapter
- We have found evidence of the worship of the banyan tree in the Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization.
- In the excavation, we have found evidence of the worship of Tulsi.
- Evidence has been found of seven women and men performing rituals in sacred works.
- In the excavation, the kamandals of the monks have been found.
- We have found many Havan Kundas in the excavation.
- We have got the evidence of worship of Shivlinga.
- A woman is holding two lions with both her hands which shows the initial form of Durga.
- In the excavation, many evidences of worship of Goddess have been found.
- A person who is with many animals and is holding a snake in his hand which is considered as Pashupati Nath Shiva.
- There are many evidences of worship of Shiva.
- People of Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization worship bull with hump.
- A bronze idol of a dancer wearing ornaments in her entire hands has been excavated from Mohenjodaro.
Some Important Dates
Cotton was cultivated in Mehargarh about 7000 years ago.
Settlement in the form of towns started about 4700 years ago.
The end of the Harappan towns began about 3900 years ago.
Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization is about 8000 years old.